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Fanni Koszeg | Bloomberg LawCFTC Speech, Jill Sommers, Remarks before the Institute of International Bankers, Annual Washington Conference (Mar. 6, 2012) Commissioner Jill Sommers spoke to representatives of the international banking community about the cross-border implications of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTC) rulemaking efforts pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank). Sommers also addressed legal developments in derivatives regulation around the globe and how harmonization efforts among regulators are progressing. In particular, she was highly critical of the CFTC's Volcker Rule proposal and urged her fellow Commissioners to provide clear and comprehensive guidance on when and why foreign financial entities are subject to U.S. regulations.
State of Financial Reform in the United StatesSommers voiced her dissatisfaction with her own agency's rulemaking process and argued for a more "reasonable, measured" approach. She said that regulators "don't know what the full impact of [their] rules will be" on previously unregulated swaps markets and "whether the assumptions [they] are operating under are valid." Sommers referred to the CFTC's recent block trade proposal as an example of an overly specific regulation that relied on "stale data and far too little of it." For more background on the controversy surrounding the block trade proposal, see CFTC Commissioners Disagree on Benefits of Final Business Conduct Rule and Re-Proposed Controversial Block Trading Rule, Bloomberg Law Reports® — Derivatives Law, Vol. 3, No. 5 (Mar. 5, 2012).
Guidance on Dodd-Frank's Extraterritorial ApplicationSommers emphasized the need for crafting derivatives regulations that are appropriate for a global market. "These issues are very complex, and the possibility of divergent views among international regulators is very real," she said. With Section 722(d) of Dodd-Frank, Congress expressed a general intent for Dodd-Frank's provisions to apply to activities abroad under certain circumstances. However, it was left up to the CFTC and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to determine the exact parameters of Dodd-Frank's "extraterritorial" reach. Sommers said that "setting the precise scope of Dodd-Frank with respect to cross-border activities of foreign entities is necessary to preserve the continuity of global business operations." As a first step, the CFTC is planning to issue guidance on which entities will be required to register as U.S. swap dealers or major swap participants, and other matters, including clearing and market infrastructure issues, will be addressed separately at a later date. Sommers argued that this "piecemeal approach to issues of extraterritoriality" was wrong, and the CFTC, in coordination with the SEC, should propose a comprehensive rule that "will give market participants some degree of certainty." The Commissioner cited several international regulators who are eager to understand how far CFTC regulations would reach and when U.S. regulators would choose to defer to their foreign counterparts.
Volcker Rule Disliked by International CommunityThe CFTC's (and other federal regulators' nearly identical) Volcker Rule proposal issued pursuant to Section 619 of Dodd-Frank is one of the most controversial examples of a U.S. regulation that would extend to global markets. Sommers criticized the proposal as "lengthy and extremely complex" and chided the CFTC for not taking into account the numerous comment letters submitted on the other federal regulators' previously issued proposal. Sommers referenced comments from "high ranking officials," such as Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney, EU Financial Services Commissioner Michel Barnier, and the Chairman of the United Kingdom's Financial Services Authority. Some of those officials and industry groups representing market participants have argued that in its current form, the Volcker Rule would reduce market liquidity and increase borrowing costs in non-U.S. sovereign debt markets. In response, Sommers urged U.S. regulators to "come together and form a reasonable approach to the many difficult issues included in the prohibitions and restrictions on proprietary trading." For more background on a defense of the Volcker Rule proposal by Paul Volcker himself, see Volcker on Volcker: Former Federal Reserve Chairman Addresses Arguments against Proprietary Trading Reforms, Bloomberg Law Reports® — Derivatives Law, Vol. 3, No. 5 (Mar. 5, 2012).
Global Regulatory Developments and Coordination EffortsAs chair of the CFTC's Global Markets Advisory Committee, Sommers has participated for the past three years in the technical committee meetings of the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO). In her role, Sommers has been in charge of monitoring regulatory developments in the European Union and several Asian countries, and she has participated in a number of meetings with her counterparts. Sommers is also actively working with the IOSCO task force on over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives, which is preparing several reports, including on mandatory clearing, trading, and data aggregation requirements. For more background on recent European regulatory developments, see ESMA Commences Rulemaking Process for OTC Derivatives, Bloomberg Law Reports® — Derivatives Law, Vol. 3, No. 5 (Mar. 5, 2012). Sommers also gave an update on regulatory developments in several Asian countries:
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