Bloomberg Law: Privacy & Data Security brings you single-source access to the expertise of Bloomberg Law’s privacy and data security editorial team, contributing practitioners,...
By Paul D. McKenzie and Jing Bu
Paul D. McKenzie is a member of Morrison & Foerster LLP's Global Privacy and Data Security practice and managing partner of the firm's Beijing office.
Jing Bu is formerly of Morrison & Foerster's Beijing office.
The authors would like to thank colleagues Gordon Milner and Cynthia Rich for valuable comments on an earlier draft.
The past 16 months have been eventful in China in connection with privacy law and network security developments.
Key privacy law developments included:
Chinese privacy developments continue to be relatively piecemeal, with standards and definitions as they develop often being different in privacy provisions governing different sectors and activities.
This same period saw significant developments on the data security front, including the launch of a new system for certifying the network security of information technology (IT) products and services used by banks and other financial institutions, as well as efforts towards a broadernetwork security review regime that will likely affect international IT product suppliers and IT service providers. It also witnessed issuance of a draft Anti-Terrorism Law that contemplates broad access to voice and data traffic by People's Republic of China (PRC) authorities.
CONSUMER PROTECTION LAW
The amended Law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of Consumers1 (Consumer Protection Law), which was promulgated Oct. 25, 2013, by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), came into effect Mar. 15, 2014. The amended Consumer Protection Law includes a number of privacy-related provisions.
The Consumer Protection Law recognizes that consumers have a right to dignity and the right to have their personal information protected when purchasing or using a good or receiving a service.
The Consumer Protection Law also provides as follows:
The Consumer Protection Law provides consumers with various civil remedies. A business operator who infringes a consumer's rights to dignity or privacy must cease such infringement, rehabilitate the user's reputation, take actions to mitigate adverse consequences, apologize andindemnify the user for losses.
The Consumer Protection Law also contemplates a number of administrative penalties. It states that industrial and commercial authorities and other relevant administrative authorities may issue rectification orders and, based on the circumstances, impose penalties that include a warning, confiscation of unlawful income and fines of (i) between one and 10 times the unlawful income or (ii) where there is no unlawful income, up to 500,000 yuan (about $80,645). Where laws and regulations are seriously violated, the business operator can be ordered to cease business until the problem has been rectified or have its business license revoked.
The Consumer Protection Law itself offers no definition of “personal information.” However, after the amendments to the Consumer Protection Law came into force, Jan. 5, 2015, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) issued Measures for Punishment of Infringements of Consumer Rights and Interests2, which provide a definition. “Consumer personal information” is defined to mean information such as “name, gender, occupation, birthday, identification number, domicile, contact information, income, financial condition, health condition and consumption history” of a consumer “that individually or in conjunction with other pieces of information can identify the consumer.” These measures came into effect Mar. 15, 2015.
The year 2014 witnessed the conclusion of the most high-profile prosecution3 to date under the privacy-related provisions of the Criminal Law.
As amended in 2009, Article 253 of the Criminal Law imposes criminal liability on employees of government institutions and companies in the financial, telecommunications (telecom), transportation, educational and medical sectors who sell or otherwise unlawfully provide to third parties the personal data of any citizen that have been obtained in the course of employment and also on any person who has obtained such information by means of theft or other unlawful means, in either case where the associated circumstances are “serious.”
The year 2014 witnessed the conclusion of the most high-profile prosecution to date under the privacy-related provisions of the Criminal Law.
In August, Peter Humphrey (a British national) and Yu Yingzeng (an American citizen) were convicted for their purchase of personal information about Chinese citizens in the course of operating their ChinaWhys investigations business. The case received prominence (and some sources believe the prosecution was pursued in the first instance) due to rumored connections between ChinaWhys and GlaxoSmithKline Plc. At the time of Humphrey's and Yu's arrests, GlaxoSmithKline was itself being investigated by Chinese authorities for corruption. Some media reports suggest GlaxoSmithKline was a ChinaWhys client that had asked ChinaWhys to conduct investigative work associated with the corruption allegations.
Factors considered by the court in determining that the circumstances were “serious” included the frequency of the breaches, the volume of personal information involved and the amount of associated illegal profits. Penalties imposed on Humphrey included a two-and-a-half-year prison sentence, a 200,000 yuan ($32,279) fine and an order that he be deported from China upon completion of his prison term. Yu was penalized with a two-year prison term and a 150,000 yuan ($24,209) fine.
Draft Amendment to Criminal Law
On Nov. 3, 2014, the NPC circulated for public comment Amendment 9 to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China (Draft),4 which contemplates, among a variety of other proposed changes to the law, a significant broadening of the scope of criminal liability under Article 253 of the Criminal Law for the misuse of personal information. Specifically, it calls for:
Promulgation of this amendment would represent a significant broadening of potential criminal liability associated with personal data breaches. The necessary element under Article 253 that the circumstances be “serious” in theory protects individuals and companies from prosecution for trivial breaches. However, the Criminal Law does not stipulate what circumstances count as serious, leaving courts with significant discretion to apply the test to specific cases.
Online privacy continued to be one of the main focuses of regulations in 2014, following issuance in 2013 by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) of standalone provisions governing the protection of personal information online.
Online Tort Provisions
On Aug. 21, 2014, the Supreme People's Court issued the Provisions on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law to Adjudicate Civil Disputes Involving Infringement of Personal Rights Via Information Networks (the Supreme Court Provisions),5 which came into effect Oct. 10, 2014.
The Supreme Court Provisions direct courts to support tort claims associated with disclosure by network users and network service providers of private information and other personal information, such as genetic information, medical records, health examination materials, criminal records, home addresses and information regarding private activities. At the same time, the Supreme Court Provisions stipulate a number of circumstances where a disclosure of information should not serve as the basis of a tort claim, including:
Additional “safe harbors” contemplated by the Supreme Court Provisions include:
The Supreme Court Provisions limit the scope of these last two safe harbors by stipulating that network users and network service providers may still be liable if the method of disclosure violates the public interest or social morals or if the disclosure harms a material interest of the individual whose personal information is publicly disclosed.
The language of the Supreme Court Provisions leaves some uncertainty as to whether tort liability will arise in cases involving online data.
The language of the Supreme Court Provisions summarized above leaves some uncertainty as to whether tort liability will arise in particular cases involving online data, and it will be interesting to see how judicial practice applying the Supreme Court Provisions develops.
After having circulated drafts for public comment6 Nov. 13, 2014, MIIT formally issued Dec. 24, 2014, two related standards governing the protection of personal information by telecom service providers and Internet information service providers:
The Classification categorizes personal information into three categories and further into an aggregate of 14 subcategories. The Guideline in turn provides for different levels of protection for the different categories and subcategories of personal information: five different levels, from level 1 to level 5 in ascending order of rigor.
Level 5 protection applies to information such as proof of identification (e.g., photocopies of identification cards), biological identification (e.g., iris scans) and identity and authentication information in relation to transaction services (e.g., account names/numbers and passwords), andit requires
that strict technology and management measures be implemented; that users' information and choice rights be protected; that the confidentiality and completeness of personal information be preserved; that control and security of access to personal information be ensured; and that strict management protocols and real-time monitoring mechanisms be established in regard to the security of users' personal information.
Level 1 protection applies to information such as information about the service relationship with users—for example, data on when a user registered for service—and requires adoption of measures to control access to the personal information.
The Guideline and Classification list additional standards to be issued governing data privacy:
MIIT work plans in regard to standards-setting target the end of 2015 for completion of these three standards.
The MIIT work plans target the end of 2015 for completion of the new telecommunications and Internet service provider standards.
China Law Association/Peking University Standards
Nongovernmental organizations have also been participating in standards-setting efforts.
The China Law Association on Science and Technology and the Internet Law Center of Peking University issued Standards for the Assessment of Internet Enterprises' Protection of Personal Information7 Mar. 15, 2014.
These standards, as compared with other existing rules, propose certain additional measures to be adopted by Internet service providers, such as encrypting users' personal information, giving users the right to access, and to request correction of, the personal information in the possession of Internet service providers and, where geolocation information is collected, notifying users of the same and providing them with the means to disable the collection.
Having been issued by two research organizations, these standards are not legally binding. However, they do contemplate Internet information service providers be granted ratings based on their practices in handling personal data and may help inform best practices with respect to the protection of personal information in China's quickly evolving regulatory environment.
The National Health and Family Planning Commission issued the Administrative Measures on Management of Population Health Information (Trial)8 May 5, 2014.
They include one of the first examples of an outright prohibition on the export of personal data, stating that medical, health and family planning organizations are prohibited from storing medical information on servers located outside of PRC and from using an escrow server or renting a server located outside of PRC.
Postal/Express Delivery Services
The State Post Bureau issued the Administrative Measures for Security of Personal Information of Postal Service Users9 (Postal Measures) on Mar. 19, 2014.
The Postal Measures, which govern not only China Post but also express delivery companies, define “personal information” of postal service users as personal information disclosed by users during the process of using postal services, including senders’/recipients' names, addresses, identity numbers, telephone numbers, entity names, details of waybills, timing and information regarding items to be delivered. Postal service enterprises, express delivery enterprises and their staffs may not disclose user information to any other entity or individual unless expressly authorized by law or consented to in writing by users.
The Postal Measures also impose numerous technical requirements on postal service and express delivery enterprises to ensure the security of users' electronic information, including, among others, that users' electronic information be encrypted and stored in a separate location.
The year 2014 witnessed significant efforts on the part of MIIT and other parts of the PRC government to improve standards in regard to data security.
MIIT Guiding Opinions
A key document, issued by MIIT Sept. 1, 2014, is the Guiding Opinions on Strengthening Network Security in the Telecommunications and Internet Sectors10 (MIIT Opinions). The MIIT Opinions call for a coordinated effort by regulators and telecom enterprises to strengthennetwork security in the telecom and Internet sectors, starting with enhanced enforcement of existing regulations and standards governing network security and including adoption of a formal network MIIT security review mechanism. Further, the MIIT Opinions also:
It would appear that the banking sector has been chosen by regulators to be at the forefront of efforts to enhance network security.
On Sept. 3, 2014, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC), the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Science and Technology and MIIT issued the Guiding Opinions Regarding Application of Secure and Controllable Information Technologies to Strengthen Network Security and Information Construction in the Banking Sector11 (Banking Opinions).
Regulators have chosen the banking sector to be at the forefront of efforts to enhance network security.
The Banking Opinions define a number of related goals for the banking sector in relation to data security, promoting the use by banks of “secure and controllable information technologies” and calling for implementation of network security review standards for the banking sector. Other key provisions include the following:
The Banking Opinions were followed by issuance by the CBRC and MIIT on Dec. 29, 2014 of the following:
The Guideline and Catalog implement the Guiding Opinions by confirming the scope of institutions covered by the requirements (broadly, including commercial banks and various categories of other financial institutions) and by defining specifically what “security and controllability” require in regard to stipulated categories of IT products and services. They also set minimum utilization rates for “secure and controllable” technology specific to each category of products and services, including various categories of software products.
Specific requirements regarding security and controllability, as well as specific utilization rates, vary with the particular type of software at issue. A general requirement applicable to all categories of software covered by the Catalog, as well as software embedded in specified hardware, is that related source codes must be filed with CBRC.
The Guideline sets out a relatively demanding work plan for banks in order to comply with the various requirements.
The period following issuance of the Guideline and Catalog have witnessed significant efforts by the U.S. and European Union to secure the Chinese government's agreement to shelve them. As of the time of writing, it appears the Chinese government may have agreed to delay their implementation.13
Formation of CAC; Formulation of Network Security Review Process
At the beginning of 2014, a major administrative restructuring was implemented that involved the separation of the State Internet Information Office (SIIO) from the State Council Information Office through establishment of SIIO as a separate government department under the oversight of the Central Leading Group for Cyberspace Affairs under the direct leadership of the Communist Party Chairman Xi Jinping. The English name now used by SIIO is the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) and www.cac.gov.cn was launched as its official website on Dec. 31, 2014. While the formal structure and authorities of the CAC have not been publicly disclosed, industry sources anticipate that CAC will have significant authority over network security issues.
Various existing regulations and standards contemplate implementation of a formal network security review process affecting IT products and services, and one priority task of the CAC appears to be formulation of such a mechanism.
Media reports suggest work is underway to formulate a mandatory network security review process, with the Xinhua state-owned news agency, in a Jan. 19, 2015, news report, quoting a CAC official as saying that CAC had finalized draft network security review measures andwould submit them for review to the Central Leading Group for Cyberspace Affairs, the Communist Party organization that oversees CAC operations in February.14
On Nov. 3, 2014, the NPC issued the Anti-Terrorism Law (First Review Draft) for public comments.15
The first draft of the law caused significant concerns on various fronts due to the following requirements:
According to Mar. 9, 2015, comments16 made by a representative of the legislative drafting committee of the NPC Standing Committee, a review of a second draft of the law was completed in February and, while the law was not on the agenda for the annual NPC session held on Mar. 5, 2015, the law may undergo third reading and promulgation later in 2015.
The draft law has been criticized by the U.S. government and other parties for the overbroad monitoring rights that Chinese government authorities would have. In responding to questions about the draft law, spokesperson for the NPC, Fu Ying, is quoted by Xinhua news agency17as stating that the second draft of the law stipulates that use of the technical interface (1) is limited for purposes of investigating and preventing terrorist activity; (2) is limited to public and state security agencies; and (3) is subject to a strict review and approval process.
If 2014 is any indication, China will be an interesting jurisdiction for data privacy and security practitioners in 2015.
1. The Consumer Protection Law is available, in Chinese, at http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/xinwen/2013-10/26/content_1811773.htm (12 PVLR 1879, 11/4/13) (211 Privacy Law Watch, 10/31/13).
2. These measures are available, in Chinese, at http://www.saic.gov.cn/zwgk/zyfb/zjl/xfzbhj/201501/t20150114_151320.html (14 PVLR 485, 3/16/15) (50 Privacy Law Watch, 3/16/15).
3. No official case report has been issued. A news report published by Xinhua, China's state-owned media outlet, can be found, in Chinese, at http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-08/09/c_1112002618.htm.
4. These draft amendments are available, in Chinese, at http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/xinwen/lfgz/flca/2014-11/03/content_1885029.htm.
5. The Supreme Court Provisions are available, in Chinese, at http://www.chinacourt.org/law/detail/2014/08/id/147944.shtml.
6. The MIIT notice circulating the drafts is available, in Chinese, at http://www.miit.gov.cn/n11293472/n11293832/n12845605/n13916913/16249933.html. The texts of the draft Classification and Guideline are no longer available via this link. Copies of the final, Chinese-language Classification andGuideline are available for purchase from Posts & Telecommunications Press.
7. These standards are available, in Chinese and English, at http://www.pkunetlaw.cn/news_info.aspx?id=2441.
8. These measures are available, in Chinese, at http://bit.ly/1N4lTsR.
9. These measures are available, in Chinese, at http://www.spb.gov.cn/zcfg/gfxwj/201403/t20140326_301910.html.
10. The MIIT Opinions are available, in Chinese, at http://www.miit.gov.cn/n11293472/n11293832/n12843926/n13917072/16121158.html.
11. The Banking Opinions are available, in Chinese, at http://www.cbrc.gov.cn/govView_115696B8621049099A0B880DAB133A33.html.
14 A news report published by Xinhua, China's state-owned media outlet, is available, in Chinese, at http://news.xinhuanet.com/2015-01/19/c_1114042721.htm.
15 The draft text of the Anti-Terrorism Law is available, in Chinese, at http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/xinwen/lfgz/flca/2014-11/03/content_1885027.htm.
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