The most comprehensive resource available for payroll professionals. This service provides payroll news, white papers, custom research answers, webinars on the hottest payroll topics, survey and...
A new federal rule intended to prevent employers from pocketing employee tips brings with it Labor Department guidance aimed at resolving ambiguities in the law. For employers, that means ensuring compliance in states that may have additional or somewhat different tip-related rules.
Under a Fair Labor Standards Act amendment contained in the recent budget measure, employers must not keep employee tips, must prohibit managers and supervisors from participating in tip pools, and may allow back-of-the-house workers to participate in tip pools as long as all workers are paid at least the federal minimum wage of $7.25 an hour. The legislation, better known as the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 ( Pub. L. 115-141), was signed into law March 23 by President Donald Trump.
Employers have to comply with federal and state laws but must factor the law that better protects employees and comply with its requirements. “You have to comply with the more employee-friendly law on all levels,” said Aaron Colby, a lawyer specializing in California wage and hour law at the Los Angeles office of the firm Davis Wright Tremaine LLP.
The Labor Department clarified what constitutes a manager or supervisor for purposes of tip-pool requirements, definitions that were lacking in the FLSA amendment, in a Field Assistance Bulletin ( FAB 2018-3). A worker qualifies as a manager or supervisor if the position comes with the authority to hire and fire, to have management as a primary duty, and to supervise at least two employees, the April 6 bulletin said.
However, states may have different standards for defining a manager or a supervisor. States also may have requirements that differ from federal rules in other respects.
In California, where tip credits are not mandatory, back-of-the-house employees may participate in tip pools but only for workers who provide table service or who are in the chain of service to guests, according to an advisory that Colby provides to employers he counsels on various wage and hour matters. Under the federal law, other back-of-the-house employees also may participate, such as dishwashers and line cooks, but still not supervisors or managers.
Additionally, employers in California must use the state’s test to determine if a worker is a manager or supervisor prohibited from participating in tip pools, as well as the federal test, as identified in the Labor Department field bulletin.
The state test in California forbids employees who qualify as agents of the employer to participate in tip pools. An agent of an employer is determined by factors that include job title and duties, and whether customers and co-workers perceive them to be managers, the client advisory said. Agents’ input also would be regarded in the hiring, training and discipline of workers, along with reports on shift-related issues.
Employers “have to not just look at the federal law and redo policy,” Colby said, but also look at the state law and see how it “meshes with the federal law, and then redo policy.”
In New York, the state’s ban on back-of-the-house employees participating in tip pools was unaffected by the FLSA amendment of the federal budget legislation, Colby and several colleagues said April 5 in an article for the law firm Davis Wright Tremaine. New York’s hospitality industry wage orders limit the employees eligible to participate in a tip pool to those who provide or help to provide personal service to customers as a regular part of their duties. Only food-service workers, as defined by the state, may receive pooled tips, according to the article.
Although federal law allows sharing tips with back-of-the-house workers, New York state law does not allow the practice, Colby said.
Whether state law would be preempted by federal tip-pooling requirements that are not directly tied to minimum wage or overtime, such as the definition of manager, may have to be resolved in court, said Jeffrey Brecher, a wage and hour lawyer with the firm Jackson Lewis P.C. in Melville, N.Y.
In a real-world scenario, New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo (D) said in his State of the State address in January that the state labor department was pursuing the elimination of the minimum-wage tip credit. Hearings to solicit input started in March and are to continue until late June. The deadline for written testimony is July 1.
If New York eliminates the tip credit, then there would be no prohibition under the FLSA against sharing tips among front-of-the-house and back-of-the-house workers, Brecher said, adding that under New York Labor Law 196(d) the state still would prohibit the practice. “But the question then becomes whether 196(d) is preempted by the recent amendment to the FLSA because they now conflict,” he said.
Other states, including Oregon and Washington, do not have regulations governing tip pooling. In these states, employers may allow participation in tip pools by back-of-the-house employees, including dishwashers and line cooks, but not managers and supervisors, the Davis Wright Tremaine article said.
Employers should develop clearly written tip-pooling policies, wage and hour experts said. In implementing mandatory tip-pooling that includes back-of-the-house employees, employers should ensure that all employees receive the full federal minimum wage and comply with local and states laws.
“All on-boarding documents and the tip-pooling policy need to consciously decide what job descriptions are going to fit in the tip pool,” Colby said. For shift leaders, employers should look beyond the job title to the workers’ duties. “You don’t want someone participating in tip pools where the job description clearly says ‘supervises employees,’” he said.
“You look at the standard,” Colby said. “If they come close to it, you have to make a risk assessment” and identify if there are other ways to compensate the person without the risk of putting them in a tip pool or you consider changing the job description, he said.
Copyright © 2018 The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
All Bloomberg BNA treatises are available on standing order, which ensures you will always receive the most current edition of the book or supplement of the title you have ordered from Bloomberg BNA’s book division. As soon as a new supplement or edition is published (usually annually) for a title you’ve previously purchased and requested to be placed on standing order, we’ll ship it to you to review for 30 days without any obligation. During this period, you can either (a) honor the invoice and receive a 5% discount (in addition to any other discounts you may qualify for) off the then-current price of the update, plus shipping and handling or (b) return the book(s), in which case, your invoice will be cancelled upon receipt of the book(s). Call us for a prepaid UPS label for your return. It’s as simple and easy as that. Most importantly, standing orders mean you will never have to worry about the timeliness of the information you’re relying on. And, you may discontinue standing orders at any time by contacting us at 1.800.960.1220 or by sending an email to email@example.com.
Put me on standing order at a 5% discount off list price of all future updates, in addition to any other discounts I may quality for. (Returnable within 30 days.)
Notify me when updates are available (No standing order will be created).
This Bloomberg BNA report is available on standing order, which ensures you will all receive the latest edition. This report is updated annually and we will send you the latest edition once it has been published. By signing up for standing order you will never have to worry about the timeliness of the information you need. And, you may discontinue standing orders at any time by contacting us at 1.800.372.1033, option 5, or by sending us an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Put me on standing order
Notify me when new releases are available (no standing order will be created)