Pregnancy Discrimination Act: A Guide for Plaintiff Employment Lawyers, with 2017 Supplement

This unique treatise gives plaintiff lawyers the strategies and guidance they need to represent clients in Pregnancy Discrimination Act cases.


Meet The Authors

P. Daniel Williams
(Main Edition)
Laura Brown
(2017 Supplement)
J. Thomas Spiggle
(2017 Supplement)


The Pregnancy Discrimination Act: A Guide for Plaintiff Employment Lawyers provides must-have strategies and guidance on pregnancy discrimination litigation that plaintiff's lawyers require to effectively represent their clients. This book also contains extensive analysis regarding case law favorable to defendants, making it a useful source of information for management lawyers.

This treatise covers essential topics, including: proximity, evidentiary issues, proof of knowledge, discriminatory comments and stereotypes related to family caregiver responsibilities; the requirement to use comparator evidence; light duty; accommodation; issues regarding jury instructions and selection in PDA cases; state law pregnancy discrimination claims; and damages.


  • Who is Protected by the PDA?
  • Related Supreme Court Decisions
  • Temporal Proximity
  • Direct Evidence, Discriminatory Comments, and Stereotype Evidence
  • Knowledge of Pregnancy
  • Maternity Leave, Pregnancy-Related Absenteeism, and Comparator Evidence
  • Accommodation Under the PDA
  • Related Federal Statutes
  • State Law
  • Unwed Pregnant Employees
  • Female Decision Makers
  • Juries and Pregnancy Discrimination Cases
  • Special Damages Issues
  • Appendices (Excerpts from Title VII, ADA, FMLA, FLSA, and EEOC Regulations)


The 2017 Supplement incorporates significant developments that have occurred since the First Edition was published in 2011, including:

  • The EEOC’s revised regulations for the Americans with Disabilities Act, making it easier for pregnant workers to obtain reasonable accommodations under the law as well as to assert claims for disability discrimination based on pregnancy-related medical conditions;
  • Congress’ passage of the Affordable Care Act, which amended the FLSA to include the right to pumping accommodations for nursing mothers;
  • The U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Young v. UPS, which expanded access to reasonable workplace accommodations for pregnant workers under the PDA;
  • The EEOC’s issuance of Enforcement Guidance on Pregnancy Discrimination and Related Issues;
  • Statutory developments in various states that give pregnant women an affirmative right to workplace accommodations during pregnancy, including unpaid time off to recover from childbirth; and
  • Several states’ passage of paid family leave insurance laws, giving employees the right to paid time off to welcome a newborn.


Bloomberg Law authors and editors are practicing professionals with insider perspectives and real-life experience. Learn more about this book’s authors and editors.

P. Daniel Williams is a founding partner at Magid & Williams PA, Jacksonville, FL.

Laura Brown is the Executive Director of the First Shift Justice Project, Washington, DC.

J. Thomas Spiggle is the founder of the Spiggle Law Firm, Alexandria, VA.


View full tables of contents and read the book’s preface or introduction.